Port

I've had a lot of trouble finding a blogging platform which I enjoyed using - they were either too heavy or required using a web editor or were tricky to customize and theme. So last week I put together a super lightweight blogging platform called port.

port is the centralized complement to nomadic, which is a lightweight note management system. Like nomadic, port uses directory structure to define its routing structure and works primarily off markdown documents.

Here's what port offers:

  • Posts are GitHub-flavored markdown files, with MathJax support
  • A blog is represented as a directory, with subdirectories of markdown posts
  • Post categories are defined by the folders they are in
  • RSS feeds for individual categories and for all posts
  • Very easy theming (Jinja2 templates)
  • Managed via a CLI (the port command)
  • No database necessary!
  • No admin UI necessary!

There are a couple additional convenience features as well:

  • port sync makes it easy to sync your local site files to a remote machine (e.g. your server)
  • port host generates the config files necessary to host your blog with uwsgi, supervisor, and nginx
  • port serve serves the site locally, which is useful for previewing your work

Tutorial

Here's how to get going with port. For this example I'll specify my site's directory as ~/spaceandtimes.

Install

pip install port

Create a site (I'll use my site as an example) and go through the config

port create spaceandtimes

Setup a category (just renaming the default category port creates)

mv ~/spaceandtimes/default_category ~/spaceandtimes/coding

Add an image to the assets folder

mv ~/some_image.png ~/spaceandtimes/assets/

Create a post (using vi here but use whatever editor you'd like)

vi ~/spaceandtimes/coding/my_first_post.md

---
published_at: 06.30.2015 10:53
---

Hello!

Here's an image:
![some alt text](/assets/some_image.png)

Build the site

port build spaceandtimes

Serve the site locally

port serve spaceandtimes

Check it out at localhost:5005!

To host the site on a server, follow these steps (this assumes an Ubuntu server):

Install the right stuff

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install uwsgi supervisor uwsgi-plugin-python uwsgi-plugin-python3 nginx

Install port on the server

pip install port

Create the site on the server (again, say we put the site at ~/spaceandtimes):

port create spaceandtimes

Then run the host command to automatically generate the necessary configs and restart the nginx and supervisor processes (the last argument is the user that the site was generated under):

port host spaceandtimes blog.spaceandtimes.com ftseng

From your local machine, sync your site (but first, build your site locally):

port sync spaceandtimes user@my_server.com:~/spaceandtimes

Workflow

My workflow with port is to write posts locally, build locally, and then sync to my server. It's super fast and easy :)

So basically:

vi ~/spaceandtimes/etc/my_new_post.md
port build spaceandtimes
port sync spaceandtimes ftseng@myserver.com:~/spaceandtimes

And that's it!

See the GitHub repo for more info on theming and other details.

~

Clustering news articles with hs_cluster

This week I returned to tackling the news clustering problem I had been exploring last year.

The general goal is to take in groups of news articles, and cluster them so that news articles talking about the same event are grouped together.

Before, I used a clustering technique that was an incremental form of hierarchical agglomerative clustering (IHAC, implementation available here) which seemed better suited for the task compared to more popular approaches like k-means and DBSCAN. However, that technique had its own problems.

The problem

The clustering quality still was not where I needed it to be - in particular, many of the resulting article clusters (which I call "events") included articles which were unrelated to the others.

This is a problem of cluster homogeneity, which asks: how many members are in clusters with members from other true clusters? The complement of this is completeness, which asks: how many members that belong together (in the true clustering) were clustered together? Lower completeness is tolerable - people are less likely to notice the absence of an article that belongs than the presence of an article that doesn't (which is what homogeneity measures).

As a simple illustration, imagine the true clusters:

$$ [A_1, A_2, A_3], [B_1, B_2, B_3] $$

The following clustering has a homogeneity score of 1 (the best score) and a completeness score of $\approx 0.685$.

$$ [A_1, A_2], [A_3], [B_1, B_2, B_3] $$

The following clustering has a completeness score of 1 (the best score) and a homogeneity score of $\approx 0$.

$$ [A_1, A_2, A_3, B_1, B_2, B_3] $$

For my task, the former is preferable to the latter.

Note that the following clustering has a homogeneity score of 1, but a completeness score of $\approx 0.387$.

$$ [A_1], [A_2], [A_3], [B_1], [B_2], [B_3] $$

We don't want to achieve good homogeneity at the total expense of completeness, as is the case here!

Parameter estimation

The severity of this problem was mostly affected by where I decided to snip the cluster hierarchy that IHAC produced. The problem is that this value is difficult to determine in advance as it may vary for different sets of articles.

This dilemma - known as parameter estimation - is one that crops up a lot in clustering. For k-means, it's the question of the value for $k$; for DBSCAN, it's the value of $\epsilon$ under concern.

For IHAC my selection heuristic was based on the average density of branch nodes, but that was not working well.

In the case of k-means and DBSCAN, this problem of parameter estimation is an area of active research, so there are a few promising techniques to start with.

DBSCAN parameter estimation

For DBSCAN, one technique (outlined here) involves looking at the nearest neighbor for each point and identifying some majority value for $\epsilon$ based on that.

The technique I'm using is similar - it involves taking the $n$ nearest neighbors for each point, looking at the distances between them, and identifying the largest "jump" in distance. The average of the distances that precede those jumps in difference is used as $\epsilon$.

(Though I also wonder if $\epsilon$ is a parameter that could be learned; that is, if news events tend to have a similar article density.)

k-means parameter estimation

For k-means, one effective approach is outlined here, called "$f(K)$", which runs k-means iteratively with different values of $k$ and computes scores for them (see the article for details).

You do need to specify an upper limit for $k$, which in theory could just be $n$ (the number of documents), but practically speaking, this can be very slow and it's unlikely that every document will belong to its own cluster. I've been using $n//3 + 1$ under the assumption that the events have at least 3 news articles each.

For k-means, getting $k$ right is especially important. DBSCAN has a concept of outliers so points which don't seem to belong to clusters will be treated as noise. But for k-means, every point must be assigned to a cluster, which can be problematic.

Evaluating these approaches

To evaluate these approaches, I needed some ground truth events. Fortunately, there is a resource for this: Wikinews.

On Wikinews, contributors write entries about news events and supply a list of sources for each. XML dumps of these pages are available - so I put together a program called focusgroup which parses these dumps, applies a few heuristics to weed out noise events - those in other languages, with too few sources, with sources which are no longer available, with unreliable sources, etc. - and then downloads and extracts the source pages' main content into a database.

Evaluation datasets of 10, 20, and 30 randomly selected clusters/events were built from this data.

What follows are the scores for k-means with parameter estimation, DBSCAN with parameter estimation, and my hs_cluster approach (which I'll explain below) on the 10, 20, and 30 event datasets (which I'll call 10E, 20E, and 30E, respectively).

For k-means and DBSCAN, documents are represented using TF-IDF weighted vectors (see the vectorizer source for details).

(Note that k-means is not included for the 30 event dataset because parameter estimation seemed to run indefinitely.)

Approach # Clusters Completeness Homogeneity Time
10E kmeans_cluster 7 0.9335443486 0.7530130785 6.65s
dbscan_cluster 6 1.0 0.7485938828 0.34s
hs_cluster 12 0.9287775491 0.9527683893 2.79s
20E kmeans_cluster 16 0.9684967878 0.8743004102 12.08s
dbscan_cluster 16 0.9580321015 0.8637897487 0.52s
hs_cluster 35 0.8677638864 0.9888333740 4.42s
30E kmeans_cluster n/a n/a n/a n/a
dbscan_cluster 7 0.9306925670 0.2568053596 7.13s
hs_cluster 60 0.8510288789 0.9539905161 11.27s

None of the approaches reliably get close to the number of true clusters. But what's important is that the hs_cluster approach scores much better on homogeneity (at the expense of completeness, but again, that's ok).

The hs_cluster approach

These automatic approaches are okay at finding decent values for these parameters, since these scores are not terrible - but they are clearly still weak on the homogeneity front.

An approach that doesn't require specification of a parameter like $k$ or $\epsilon$ would be ideal.

I've developed an approach which I call hs_cluster (the reason for the name is left as an exercise for the reader) which has been effective so far. Like all approaches it needs some concept of document similarity (or distance, as is the case with k-means and DBSCAN)

Document similarity

First, the pairwise similarity between all documents is computed.

Here I'm trying to take advantage of some features of the news - in particular, the assumption that articles that belong to the same event will typically talk about the same named entities.

The simplest similarity computation for a pair of documents is just the size of entity intersection (I'll go into some improvements on this further on).

Detecting outliers

Given these pairwise similarities, how do we know when two documents are significantly similar? This could be framed as a new parameter - i.e. some threshold entity intersection, above which we can say two documents are sufficiently alike.

However, this just introduces a new parameter selection problem, when the whole point of this new approach is to avoid doing exactly that!

Instead, statistical outliers seem promising. For a each document, we identify which of its similarities with other documents is an upper outlier, and consider those significant.

There are a few techniques for detecting outliers.

Perhaps the simplest involves using quartiles of the data: look at values above $Q_3 + 2(Q_3 - Q_1)$. The main problem with this technique is that it's sensitive to the sample size, e.g. if you are looking at a handful of documents, you're unlikely to get reliable results.

Another technique is similar to the $\epsilon$ estimation for DBSCAN, where abnormally large jumps between values are identified, and outliers are considered values above that jump.

A third technique is based on median-absolute-deviation (MAD), outlined here. This technique has the benefit of not being sensitive to sample size.

In practice, the simple quartile approach has worked best. I haven't looked at document sets of less than 10 in size, so perhaps below that it falls apart.

Creating the graph

These documents and their outlier similarities were then used to construct a graph where these outlier similarities define edges and their weights between documents.

Identifying and disambiguating cliques

Once the graph is formed, it's just a matter of running a clique finding algorithm (the networkx library includes one) on it.

There is one last issue - an article may belong to multiple cliques, so we need to disambiguate them. The method is simple: stay in the clique for which membership is the strongest (as quantified by the sum of edge weights) and leave all the others.

Initial results

The initial results of this approach were promising:

Completeness Homogeneity
10E 0.9287775491 0.9527683893
20E 0.8347274166 0.9724715221
30E 0.8491559191 0.9624775352

And here is the graph for the 10E dataset (all graphs are shown before clique disambiguation):

10E hs_cluster graph

(Node labels are in the format of {cluster id}_{article id}.)

It looks pretty good - some of the true clusters are isolated cliques. But there are still many connections between unrelated articles, so it seems that there's room for improvement.

Weighting intersections

"Global" IDF

Up until now we were only looking at intersection of entities, so all entities are treated equally. However, there are some fairly uninformative entities, like "US" or "Congress" which we expect to see naturally occur in many articles. We want to down-weight these entities since their appearance across two documents is unremarkable. Conversely, we want to up-weight entities which rarely occur, since their presence in an intersection is unlikely and therefore more meaningful.

Normally the approach here would be to incorporate IDF (inverse document frequency) weighting; typically this IDF is calculated from the input documents. However, the corpora I'm working with now (and expect to use in the future) are fairly small, perhaps 30-100 documents at a time, which limits the possibility of any meaningful IDF being generated. Instead I've opted for an IDF model built on an external source of knowledge - about 113,200 New York Times articles. That way we have some "global" understanding of a term's importance in the context of news articles.

So now instead of merely looking at the size of the intersection, it uses the sum of the IDF weights of the intersection's members.

Inverse length weighting

The possible intersection between two documents is affected by the length of the documents, so the IDF-weighted overlaps are then further weighted by the inverse of the average length of the two documents being compared.

Results of weighting

Incorporating these weights seem to help for the most part:

Completeness Homogeneity
10E 0.9557853457 1.0
20E 0.8375545102 0.9793536415
30E 0.8548535867 0.9689355683

Here is the resulting graph for 10E:

10E hs_cluster graph

It looks a lot cleaner than before!

Incorporating keywords

A grim observation from the data is that entities may not be enough to fully discern different news events, such as these two events in the 10E dataset:

[2] US soldier arrested for rape and four murders in Iraq
[5] Two Iraqi MPs killed in bombing at parliament

And these two events in the 20E dataset:

[3] Al Jazeera airs new Osama Bin Laden tape
[5] Bin Laden's former driver convicted of supporting terrorism

(Event names are taken from their Wikinews page title)

It seemed that looking at keywords might provide the missing information to disambiguate these events. So for each article I applied a few keyword extraction algorithms followed by the same approach that was used for entities: use the length-weighted sum of the IDF-weighted keyword intersections.

The final similarity score is then just the sum of this keyword score and the entity score from before.

The results for 10E are actually hurt a bit by this, but improved slightly for 20E and 30E:

Completeness Homogeneity
10E 0.9051290086 0.9527683893
20E 0.8574072716 0.9888333740
30E 0.8414058524 0.9704378548

If we look at the graph for 10E, it's clear why the results were worse:

10E hs_cluster graph

More noise (i.e. unwanted edges) have been introduced, as you might expect.

For now, I've left the keyword intersection in, but it may require some additional processing to eliminate noisy terms.

Next steps

hs_cluster can overshoot the true number of events by quite a bit, but this is because it is still very conservative in how it connects articles together for now. Finding so many extra clusters (i.e. lower completeness) indicates missing edges (this is clear in the graph for the 20E dataset, below), so edge formation needs more investigation: is it a problem of outlier detection? Is it a problem of computing document similarity?

20E hs_cluster graph

It's also unclear how hs_cluster will perform on larger document sets. The 30E dataset includes 103 documents and takes 11-12 seconds. I haven't done any profiling yet but I suspect the slowdown may come from the clique finding step, which gets slow for large graphs.

Overall, the results are encouraging. There's still room for improvement, but it seems like a promising direction.

Source

Source code for the project is available at https://github.com/ftzeng/hscluster. The IDF models are not included there; if you are interested, please get in touch - I'm on Twitter as @frnsys.

~

Threat Modeling in Digital Communites

It's trolls all the way down

As part of my OpenNews fellowship I've recently started working on the Coral Project, a Knight-funded joint venture between the New York Times, the Washington Post, and Mozilla which, broadly, is focused on improving the experience of digital community online. That mission is an catch-all for lots and lots of subproblems; the set I'm particularly drawn to are those issues around creating inclusive and civil spaces for discussion.

Any attempt at this must contend with a variety of problems which undermine and degrade online communities. To make the problem more explicit, it's helpful to have a taxonomy of these "threats". I'll try to avoid speculating on solutions and save that for another post.

Trolls/flamers/cyberbullying

The most visible barrier to discussion spaces are deliberately toxic actors - generally lumped together under the term "trolls"*.

I think most people are familiar with what a troll is, but for the sake of completeness: trolls are the users who go out and deliberately attack, harass, or offend individuals or groups of people.

If you're interested in hearing more about what might motivation a troll, this piece provides some insight.

Astroturfing

Any mass conglomeration of spending power or social capital soon becomes a resource to be mined by brands. So many companies (and other organizations) have adopted the practice of astroturfing, which is a simulated grassroots movement.

For instance, a company gets a lot of people to rave about their products until you too, just by sheer exposure (i.e. attrition), adopt a similar attitude as your baseline. This is a much more devious form of spam because it deliberately tries to misshape our perception of reality.

This can increase the amount of noise in the network and reduce the visibility/voice of legitimate members.

Sockpuppeting/Sybil attacks

A common problem in ban-based moderation systems is that barriers-to-entry on the site may be low enough such that malicious actors can create endless new accounts with which to continue their harassment. This type of attack is called a Sybil attack (named after the dissociative identity disorder patient).

Similarly, a user may preemptively create separate accounts to carry out malicious activity, keeping deplorable behavior distinct from their primary account. In this case, the non-primary accounts are sockpuppets.

It seems the problem with Sybil attacks is the ease of account creation, but I don't think a solution to the Sybil attacks is to make barriers-to-entry higher. Rather, you should ask whether banning is the best strategy. Ideally, we should seek to forgive and reform users rather than to exclude them (I'll expand on this in another post). This solution is dependent on whether or not the user is actually trying to participate in good faith.

Witch hunts

This is the madness of crowds that can spawn on social networks. An infraction, whether it exists or not, whether it is big or small, becomes viral to the point that the response is disproportionate by several orders of magnitude. Gamergate, which began last year and now seems to be permanent part of the background radiation of the internet, is an entire movement that blew up from a perceived - that is, non-existent, nor particularly problematic - offense. In these cases, the target often becomes a symbol for some broader issue, and it's too quickly forgotten that this is a person we're talking about.

Eternal September

"Eternal September" refers to September 1993, when AOL expanded access to Usenet caused a large influx of new users, not socialized to the norms of existing Usenet communities. This event is credited with the decline of the quality of those communities, and now generally refers to the anxiety of a similar event. New users who know nothing about what a group values, how they communicate, and so on come in and overwhelm the existing members.

Appeals to "Eternal September"-like problems may themselves be a problem - it may be used to rally existing community members in order to suppress a diversifying membership, in which case it's really no different than any other kind of status quo bias.

To me this is more a question of socialization and plasticity - that is, how should new members be integrated into the community and its norms? How does the community smoothly adapt as its membership changes?

Brigading

Brigading is the practice where organized groups suss out targets - individuals, articles, etc - which criticize their associated ideas, people, and so on and go en masse to flood the comments in an incendiary way (or otherwise enact harmfully).

This is similar to astroturfing, but I tend to see brigading as being more of a bottom-up movement (i.e. genuinely grassroots and self-organized).

Doxxing

Doxxing - the practice of uncovering and releasing personally identifying information without consent - is by now notorious and is no less terrible than when it first became a thing. Doxxing is made possible by continuity in online identity - the attacker needs to connect one particular account to others, which can be accomplished through linking the same or similar usernames, email addresses, or even personal anecdotes posted across various locations. This is a reason why pseudonyms are so important.

Swatting

Swatting is a social engineering (i.e. manipulative) "prank" in which police are called in to a investigate possible threat where there is none. It isn't new but seems to have had a resurgence in popularity recently. What was once an activity for revenge (i.e. you might "swat" someone you didn't like) now seems to be purely for the spectacle (i.e. done without consideration of who the target is, just for lulz) - for instance, someone may get swatted while streaming themselves on Twitch.tv.

The Fluff Principle

The "Fluff Principle" (as it was named by Paul Graham) is where a vote-driven social network eventually comes to be dominated by "low-investment material" (or, in Paul's own words, "the links that are easiest to judge").

The general idea is that if a piece of content takes one second to consume and judge, more people will be able to upvote it in a given amount of time. Thus knee-jerk or image macro-type content come to dominate. Long-form essays and other content which takes time to consume, digest, and judge just can't compete.

Over time, the increased visibility of the low-investment material causes it to be come the norm, and so more of it is submitted, and so the site's demographic comes expecting that, and thus goes the positive feedback loop.

Power-user oligarchies

In order to improve the quality of content or user contributions, many sites rely on voting systems or user reputation systems (or both). Often these systems confer greater influence or control features in accordance with social rank, which can spiral into an oligarchy. A small number of powerful users end up controlling the majority of content and discussion on the site.

Gaming the system

Attempts to solve any of the above typically involve creating some kind of technological system (as opposed to a social or cultural one) to muffle undesirable behavior and/or encourage positive contribution.

Especially clever users often find ways of using these systems in ways contradictory to their purpose. We should never underestimate the creativity of users under constrained conditions (in both bad and good ways!).


Whether or not some of these are problems really depends on the community in question. For instance, maybe a site's purpose is to deliver quick-hit content and not cerebral long-form essays. And the exact nature of these problems - their nuances and idiosyncrasies to a particular community - are critical in determining what an appropriate and effective solution might be. Unfortunately, there are no free lunches :\

(Did I miss any?)


* The term "troll" used to have a much more nuanced meaning. "Troll" used to refer to subtle social manipulators, engaging in a kind of aikido in which they caused people to trip on their own words and fall by the force of their own arguments. They were adept at playing dumb to cull out our own inconsistencies, hypocrisies, failures in thinking, or inappropriate emotional reactions. But you don't see that much anymore...just the real brutish, nasty stuff.

~

Assume Good Faith

  • 04.06.2015
  • etc

Throughout the many interviews we've been conducting for the Coral Project, the one that has stuck out the most to me was our talk with Jeffrey Lin, Lead Designer of Social Systems at Riot Games. At Riot, he built up a team explicitly designed to address the social and community problems which were common in League of Legends, Riot's flagship game.

Like most online games, players would regularly have to deal with hostility and toxicity from other players. For most of video gaming history, developers would typically just dismiss these social frictions as a problem beyond their control.

Generally, the impression is that this kind of toxicity comes from a relatively small portion of dedicated malicious actors. One of the key insights the social team uncovered was that - at least for League of Legends, but I suspect elsewhere as well - this was not the case. Yes, there were some consistently bad actors. But by and large regular players ended up accounting for most of the toxicity. Toxicity is distributed in the sense that a lot of it comes from people who are just having a bad day, but otherwise socialize well.

One of the social team's principles is to acknowledge that players have a good moral compass. The challenge is in designing systems which allow them to express it. If players have to contend with toxic behavior day in and day out, then their general impression will be that toxic behavior is the norm. There is no space for them to assert their own morality, and so they stay quiet.

In group dynamics, this phenomenon is known as pluralistic ignorance - when members of a community privately feel one way about something, but never express that feeling because they perceive the norm of the community to be the opposite. Not only do they not express it, but in some cases they may be excessively vocal in their support for the perceived community norm.

A classic example is the story of The Emperor's New Clothes - the emperor is tricked into wearing "clothes" which are invisible to the unworthy (in reality, he is wearing nothing). No one is willing to admit they do not see any clothes because they do not want to communicate to others that they are unworthy. Privately, everyone holds the belief that the emperor is not wearing any clothes. But publicly, they cannot admit it. It takes a child - ignorant of the politics behind everyone else's silence - to point out that the emperor is naked.

A more contemporary example is drinking on college campuses. College drinking is an extremely visible part of our cultural understanding of the college experience (e.g. through movies). As a result, many students have the impression that all of their peers are aligned with this norm, while they are privately less comfortable with it. In reality, many of their peers are also less comfortable with it. This is complicated by the fact that students who do conform or buy into the norm are often very vocal about it, to the point of intimidation - and at this point the norm becomes self-enforcing because there is even more social incentive (driven by insecurity) to publicly conform to the norm (called posturing).

Wikipedia operates on a similar principle, which they call "Assume good faith":

Assuming good faith is a fundamental principle on Wikipedia. It is the assumption that editors' edits and comments are made in good faith. Most people try to help the project, not hurt it. If this were untrue, a project like Wikipedia would be doomed from the beginning. This guideline does not require that editors continue to assume good faith in the presence of obvious evidence to the contrary (vandalism). Assuming good faith does not prohibit discussion and criticism. Rather, editors should not attribute the actions being criticized to malice unless there is specific evidence of malice.

Or to put it more succinctly, "give people the benefit of the doubt".

The key insight to draw from all of this is that moderation systems should geared towards reforming users rather than punishing them. Once we acknowledge that people typically have a decent moral compass, we should reconsider the entire moderator-user relationship. It does not have to be an antagonistic one. Most users are not consistently bad and may just need a nudge or a reminder about the effects of their behavior. Moderation systems should instead be opportunities for a community to express their values and for a user to gain better understanding of them. And they should be designed so that the community's values reflect the aggregate of its members' private values rather than a dominant norm which no one really believes in.

This attitude of good faith is refreshing well beyond the scope of the Coral project. So many arguments about important issues seem to devolve into utterly pessimistic and unfair characterizations of "human nature", which have never held much water for me. I've always felt that behaviors we observe are only one possible manifestation of a person, guided by the systems in which they operate, and we cannot confidently extrapolate claims about some immutable "human nature" from them.


For further reading, The emperor's dilemma: A computational model of self-enforcing norms (unfortunately I cannot find a PDF) develops a computational model of pluralistic ignorance.

~

Artwork for The Founder

I've uploaded almost all of the artwork for The Founder. I wasn't sure I would be able to get through it all, but I *think* all the artwork for the game is finished now (whew!).

Here's a taste:





View the rest here.

~